Paper is actually a layer of fibers, and a lot of chemicals are added. The added chemicals will affect the properties and quality of this layer of fibers. In addition to fibers and chemicals, pulp and paper also require a lot of process water, as well as a lot of energy using steam and electricity. Thus, the primary environmental issues associated with pulp and paper are water discharge, air discharge, and energy consumption.
It is estimated that waste will become an increasingly important environmental issue. Pulp used in papermaking can be made from virgin fibers by chemical or mechanical methods, or it can be made from the pulp of recycled paper. Paper mills can simply restructure pulp produced elsewhere, or they can be integrated with the pulping process at the same location.
Sulfite or kraft pulping processes are the world's leading pulping processes because they have good pulp strength properties and are suitable for all wood species. In the kraft pulping process, wastewater discharge, exhaust emissions (including malodorous gases), and energy consumption are the focus of attention. In some countries or regions, it is estimated that waste will also become an environmental issue that people value. The primary raw materials are reusable resources (wood and water), and chemicals for refining and bleaching. Wastewater discharge is primarily organic matter. Wastewater from bleaching equipment using chlorine-containing bleach contains chlorine-containing organic compounds, measured as AOX. Certain compounds released from factories are toxic to aquatic organisms. The emission of colored substances may have an adverse effect on the organisms that absorb them. Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) emissions can cause over-nutrition in the absorber. The concentration of metal extracted from wood is low, but due to the large flow, the burden on the environment cannot be ignored. After selecting the measures in the process, the content of chlorine and non-chlorine organic matter in the pulp mill wastewater was greatly reduced.
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